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Java 8 Revealed: Lambdas, Default Methods and Bulk Data Operations

Method invocation

Let’s take a look on how the default methods are actually invoked.

From the client code perspective, default methods are just ordinary virtual methods. Hence the name – virtual extension methods. So in case of the simple example with one class that implements an interface with a default method, the client code that invokes the default method will generate invokeinterface at the call site.

A clazz = new Clazz();; // invokeinterface foo()

Clazz clazz = new Clazz();; // invokevirtual foo()

In case of the default methods conflict resolution, when we override the default method and would like to delegate the invocation to one of the interfaces the invokespecial is inferred as we would call the implementation specifically:

public class Clazz implements A, B {
  public void foo(){; // invokespecial foo()

Here’s the javap output:

public void foo();
  0: aload_0
  1: invokespecial #2    // InterfaceMethod
  4: return

As you can see, invokespecial instruction is used to invoke the interface method foo(). This is also something new from the bytecode point of view as previously you would only invoke methods via super that points to a class (parent class), and not to an interface.


Default methods are an interesting addition to the Java language. You can think of them as a bridge between lambdas and JDK libraries. The primary goal of default methods is to enable an evolution of standard JDK interfaces and provide a smooth experience when we finally start using lambdas in Java 8.

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